Newly diagnosed

Managing your blood glucose levels

Page Highlights

  • The importance of HbA1c
  • Hypo- and hyperglycaemia

To keep blood glucose levels in the target range and to reduce the risk of complications, accurate doses of insulin need to be delivered to the body. Different therapies can include:

  • Conventional Therapy
    2 to 3 injections per day of mixed long- and short-acting insulin.
  • Multiple daily injections (MDI)
    Injecting 3 or more times per day with rapid-acting insulin and 1 to 2 times per day with long-acting insulin.
  • Insulin pump (Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion)
    CSII replaces the need for frequent injections by delivering rapid-acting insulin 24 hours a day. A programmed insulin rate mimics the basal insulin production by the pancreas and can be better adjusted to the body's needs. Rapid-acting insulin acts very quickly to help minimise variations in blood glucose levels in response to carbohydrate intake or, if needed, to lower high blood glucose values.

The pump changed my life. I'm not on a strict schedule, I can do everything I want, when I want and on top of it, I'm in better control.



HbA1c: an important measure of how effectively diabetes can be managed using a measure of the amount of glucose that has attached itself to each red blood cell over the preceding 2 to 3 months to assess the level of diabetes control.

The DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial) study confirmed that lowering HbA1c by just 1% can decrease the risk of developing microvascular complications by up to 40%*. HbA1c should be monitored every 3 months with the goal of keeping it below 7% (53 mmol/L) or at the target set by your physician*.

Normal glucose values vary between 4.0 and 7.8 mmol/L, and you may want to consider trying to achieve these targets in daily life with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) levels using a personal glucose meter*.

  • Hypoglycaemia (“hypos”) refers to when blood glucose levels fall below 3.5 mmol/L, although the exact figure can vary between individuals. In the case of mild hypoglycaemia, symptoms are felt, and action can be taken to prevent it becoming worse by eating or drinking something containing carbohydrates. Severe hypoglycaemia requires assistance from another person and may need hospital treatment.
  • Hyperglycaemia (“hypers”) refers to when the blood glucose level is high, usually above 11.1 mmol/L, but this can vary depending on the individual. Glucose levels above 15 mmol/L need to be treated quickly to help avoid acute complications.

It can be a challenge to reach and maintain the HbA1c goal whilst minimising the risk of hypoglycaemia. Insulin pump therapy enables adjustment in insulin requirements to meet the body's hourly needs.

So, as someone who has been recently diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, how can you keep your glucose levels under control whilst maintaining your lifestyle?


  • * References are kept on file and are available on request; please contact your local Medtronic representative for copies.


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